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Friday, March 30, 2012

Dutasteride (Avodart) does not affect Testerone levels in Men on bHRT

Dutasteride Doesn't Alter Anabolic Effects of Testosterone


March 07 2012 (HealthDay News) – Men receiving testosterone supplementation who also receive dutasteride (Avodart), which blocks the conversion of testosterone to its potent metabolite 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), do not experience a significant difference in changes in muscle-related measures or sexual function compared to men receiving testosterone without dutasteride, according to a study published in the March 7 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.



Shalender Bhasin, MD, of the Boston University School of Medicine, and colleagues conducted a controlled trial of 102 healthy men (aged 18–50 years) who were randomly allocated to one of eight treatment groups. Participants received 50mg/week, 125mg/week, 300mg/week, or 600mg/week of testosterone enanthate for 20 weeks plus placebo (four groups) or 2.5mg/day of dutasteride (four groups).



The researchers found no significant dose-adjusted differences in fat-free mass between the dutasteride and placebo groups (P=0.18). For men receiving 50mg/week, 125mg/week, 300mg/week, and 600mg/week testosterone enanthate, the mean fat-free mass gained by the dutasteride and placebo groups was 0.6kg and 0.8kg, 2.6kg and 3.5kg, 5.8kg and 5.7kg, and 7.1kg and 8.1kg, respectively. There were no between-group differences in changes in fat mass, muscle strength, sexual function, prostate volume, sebum production, and hematocrit and lipid levels.



"Changes in fat-free mass in response to graded testosterone doses did not differ in men in whom DHT was suppressed by dutasteride from those treated with placebo, indicating that conversion of testosterone to DHT is not essential for mediating its anabolic effects on muscle," the authors write.



One author disclosed financial ties to the pharmaceutical industry. GlaxoSmithKline and ENDO Pharmaceuticals provided the study drugs.



Abstract

(c)2012  source from:  http://www.empr.com/dutasteride-doesnt-alter-anabolic-effects-of-testosterone/printarticle/230943/

Monday, March 19, 2012

Environmental Estrogen Disruptors: 2 Examples


Bisphenol-A and Phthalates  (Environmental Estrogen Disruptors)

Yusuf (JP) Saleeby, MD

There are dangerous compounds out there in our environment, some closer than you think.  You don’t actually have to look very hard to find them.  The re-usable water bottles you use daily, the thermal receipt paper you are handed at the grocery store, even the corrosion proof lining in the Campbell’s soup can you just bought are all examples of items of daily living that can harm us.  Bisphenol A (BPA) is a chemical building block that is used to confer hardness to polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins.  Some 2.8 million tons of the chemical bisphenol-A was produced in 2002 by chemical manufacturers worldwide.  BPA is used to give the polycarbonate DVDs and CDs the hardness necessary for their practicality.  Phthalates are another compound of concern.  Phthalates are part of a family of chemicals used as a vinyl softener.  There is controversy within the scientific community between independent scientists and the CDC and EPA about the safety of phthalates in our environment and their potential as estrogen disruptors.  My suggestion is to avoid products with phthalates in food storage and preparation until more research proves them safe.

Does this can contain BPA?


Environmental Estrogen Disruptors are a class of estrogenic compounds (mostly synthetic like BPA and the phthalates) that are significant disruptors of the human endocrine system.  In a sense these estrogen-like compounds affect our normal hormonal axis and cause endocrine related diseases.  Such diseases as neuro-endocrine disorders, diabetes, obesity and metabolic syndrome can be traced back to heavy and even light exposures to BPA and other phthalic acid ester compounds.  Estrogenic compounds impact human reproductive health, having an effect on the developing fetus in utero as well as fertility in men, having a negative impact on sperm counts.

Bisphenol-A (BPA) is a compound that acts upon estrogen receptors in our cells.  The consequence of this environmental toxin or hormone disruptor is that it impacts human cells to enact changes undesirable for our health and wellbeing.  For example, there is scientifically proven link between BPA and obesity and metabolic syndrome (which results in truncal obesity, elevated triglycerides, hypertension and glucose intolerance or pre-diabetes).  Additionally, researchers have found a strong link between BPA and phthalates in birth defects and male infertility.  Did you know the phthalates in men’s cologne have been implicated in low sperm counts?

Escaping the exposure of estrogen disruptors completely would be a herculean task.  There are so pervasive in our daily lives that the task of avoiding them would be a all consuming effort.  However, there are steps that can be taken today and tomorrow.  Today we can avoid BPA containing containers (when we are able to identify them), avoid touching thermal paper receipts, or washing our hands immediately afterwards are just two examples [read below for more].  Additionally, we need to be careful with food container systems, such as the BPA containing soup can linings and juice box containers.

Tomorrow we can force the industry to recall and remove these harmful compounds.  We can pressure the commercially available soup manufacturers to stop using synthetic anti-corrosion linings that contaminate our food with BPA.  We can seek to pressure the paper industry to avoid BPA and BPS compounds that add this estrogenic contaminant to our environments. As we have forced the baby bottle and water container manufacturers to now produce BPA-free products we can continue to fight in new arenas.

How to recognize whether BPA is in the plastic container you have?  A few simple steps can help:  Check for the universal “recycle triangle” and if the number 7 appears, then it is likely to contain BPA (unless it is marked as BPA-free).  If you have food or beverage in a number-7 recycle container don’t cook, microwave or freeze food in it, it will leach the dangerous BPA into your food that you will consume.  Use glass (Pyrex) or other safe containers for cooking and storage.  Avoid box juices; avoid foods (canned tomatoes and soups) until FDA bans BPA in food storage containers. 

·         Drink tap water or rely on BPA-free plastic or stainless steel water bottles (from companies like Nalgene or Sigg) instead of some clear plastic re-usable bottles containing BPA.  Most “bottled water” comes in soft-plastic containers which are made of polyethylene tetrachloride (PET) and while not containing BPA are harmful for the environment as a waste product filling up landfills.
·         Instead of eating ready-to-eat meals that come out of metal cans lined with a BPA containing epoxy resins, eat only freshly-prepared foods. 
·         Instead of using plastic utensils, rely on the longer-lasting variety.  While some are made of polyethylene or polypropylene, no telling if the hardener BPA was used.  Best to use wood, bamboo or metal utensils to cook with.
·         To be safe, avoid all canned foods and replace with non-canned variations (replace canned soup with soup in a carton, for example) unless cans denote that they have a BPA-free lining. If that's not possible, avoid these specific canned foods, which are known to be high in BPA: coconut milk, soup, meat, vegetables, meals, juice, fish, beans, meal-replacement drinks, and fruit (yes, we realize that encompasses most canned foods).
·         Use glass containers along with BPA-free plastic lids when microwaving or reheating foods. The food should not touch the lids.
·         Instead of using a plastic coffee-maker or going out for coffee, use a French press or ceramic drip.
·         Avoid touching thermal-paper receipts.  If you must, wash your hands immediately.
·         Check to make sure your dietary supplement “gel caps or tablets” are not coated with a BPA sealer.  When we take dietary supplement vitamins, we don’t want to be introducing this nasty toxin into our systems.
·         Phthalates as a class of compounds are found in cosmetics, personal care products and even perfumes and colognes. They may be designated as DBP, DEHP, DzBP and DMP.  One recent study showed a correlation between men using cologne and low testosterone and sperm levels.
·         When choosing plastics use the recycling code 1, 2 & 5.  Avoid codes 3 and 7 as they are more likely to contain bisphenol A and phthalates.

The US EPA is attempting to catch up and screen for endocrine disruptors with the advent of the Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP, http://www.epa.gov/endo/) but action is slow and we are behind Canada and much of Europe.  In 2010 Canada declared Bisphenol A a toxic substance.  The European Union (EU) in 2011 banned BPA in any baby bottle products.

References:

Carwile JL, Ye X, Zhou X, Calafat AM, Michels KB. Canned soup consumption and  urinary bisphenol A: a randomized crossover trial. JAMA. 2011 Nov 23;306(20):2218-20. PubMed PMID: 22110104.

Vom Saal FS, Myers JP. Bisphenol A and risk of metabolic disorders. JAMA. 2008 Sep 17;300(11):1353-5. Epub 2008 Sep 16. PubMed PMID: 18799451.

EDSP, http://www.epa.gov/endo, Acquired 3/18/12

Diamanti-Kandarakis E, Bourguignon JP, Giudice LC, Hauser R, Prins GS, Soto AM, Zoeller RT, Gore AC. 2009. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals: an Endocrine Society scientific statement. Endocr Rev. 30(4):293-342

Schlumpf M SP, Durrer S, Conscience M, Maerkel K, Henseler M, Gruetter M, Herzog I, Reolon S, Ceccatelli R, Faass O, Stutz E, Jarry H, Wuttke W, Lichtensteiger W. 2004. Endocrine activity and developmental toxicity of cosmetic UV filters--an update. Toxicology 205(1-2): 113-122

Campaign for safe cosmetics and environmental working group, http://www.ewg.org/files/SafeCosmetics_FragranceRpt.pdf, Acquired 3/18/12

http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/PublicHealthFocus/ucm197739.htm, Acquired 3/18/12

----

Dr. Saleeby is an emergency room physician and longevity expert.  He has worked and managed patients in preventive medicine for bHRT and detoxification.  He has authored a book on adaptogen herbs and many articles on ways to maintain a healthy and fit lifestyle.


©2012

Saturday, March 10, 2012

Crush Syndrome: A few pearls to remember


Crush Syndrome:  A few pearls to remember
to be published in the SC USAR TF-1 Newsletter

Yusuf (JP) Saleeby, MD

Crush Syndrome (CS) has been documented and well known as a serious condition since WWII.  The result of a protracted crushing injury to a major limb which can cause catastrophic outcomes if ignored or unanticipated is what should be prevented.  Key points in medical management are preventive in the field with prophylactic use of hydration and the preparation for management of electrolyte disturbance.  Additional concerns should focus on prevention of acute renal failure as sequelae.




I will attempt to outline in a concise format / algorithm how this syndrome should be recognized.  How medical treatment is to be implemented (even prior to extrication and release of injured/trapped limb) and subsequent treatments and follow up.

Crushing or sustained heavy compression on an extremity or other body part causes muscle cell destruction.  The cellular breakdown products such as myoglobin, potassium, phosphorus and creatinine enter the blood stream when pressure is released following a ‘’rescue’’.  This is termed a reperfusion injury as these products of breakdown effect end organs such as the heart (cardiac dysrhythmia) and kidney (acute renal damage due to rhabdomyolysis).  Additionally, subsequent release of crushed extremity will result in hypovolemia and hypotension due to 3rd spacing with resultant shock.  This can occur rather rapidly and to save life and limb, quick action should be taken.

Cells start to die immediately after a crushing injury, ischemia under direct pressure occurs within an hour and vascular compromise can start at about four-hours.  Suspect crush syndrome to occur in an injury if more than 30-minutes has elapsed.  Toxins can circulate for as long as 60-hours after a release.  The medical team should be at the scene to asses a victim with the rescue team prior to any release, to be able to implement prophylactic therapies to avert disastrous and untoward effects.

A high index of suspicion should be on the rescuers mind when compression exceeds an hour; large muscle groups are involved; there is lack of good capillary refill or pulses; and the skin is pale, clammy or cool.  Also look for evidence of shock (rapid pulse, weakness).  There also may be absences of pain, disproportional to the type of injury.

Things we want to avoid in CS:  Hypotension, Acute Renal Failure (ARF) and Electrolyte disturbances with Dysrhythmia.  During extrication and pre-hospital management:  secure airway, O2 therapy and evaluate circulation (ABCs).  Establish one or preferably 2 IVs for infusion of LR or NS PRIOR to removal of pressure.  Two Liters of fluids are encouraged.  To avert hypotension continue aggressive IV fluid resuscitation.  Never place ice on the limb; avoid elevating the limb (splint and place in position of comfort/sling).

Pain control with Morphine or Fentanyl per MD’s orders.  Keep handy Calcium Chloride/Gluconate, D50 + insulin, & nebulized Albuterol as they all may be helpful for treatment (ECG evidence or clinic suspicion) of hyperkalemia.  Bicarbonate for IV administration in IV Fluids may also be indicated to alkalize blood/urine to prevent ARF.

Rapid transport is then indicated in position of comfort, temperature regulated (keep victim warm) and with continued aggressive hydration with IV fluids and cardiac monitoring.  Move the crush victim to the closest most appropriate medical center/hospital for continued in-hospital care.  For a more in-depth look at Crush Injury/Syndrome go to our SC USAR TF-1 web site and look up the 32 slide PowerPoint lecture on the subject or take the link below.


---------------------------

JP Saleeby, MD is an emergency medicine physician and the medical director for the SC USAR Task Force-1 medical team.  He is available for questions at jpsaleeby@aol.com



(c) 2012

Saturday, March 3, 2012

More on Res - a response to an email with recent references

From:Yusuf (JP) Saleeby, MD
To:maraikarobinson2015
Cc:jpsaleeby
Subject:Re: Reference Request - Info on Res
Date:Sat, Mar 3, 2012 2:18 am


M,

Unable to locate my source for the comparison of varietals with regard to the US Davis piece.  But this may be of interest:

  • David M. Goldberg
  • Joe Yan
  • Eric Ng,
  • Eleftherios P. Diamandis,
  • Alex Karumanchiri
  • George Soleas,
  • and Andrew L. Waterhouse
A Global Survey of Trans-Resveratrol Concentrations in Commercial WinesAm. J. Enol. Vitic. 1995 46:159-165
Abstract:Using a solid-phase extraction followed by direct-injection gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, the concentration of trans-resveratrol was measured in a representative selection of wines from most of the prominent wine-producing countries and regions of the world. With the exception of Swiss and German wines, virtually all of the white wines tested had trans-resveratrol concentrations <0.1 mg/L. Consistently high concentrations were measured in wines from Pinot noir, irrespective of origin. On the other hand, Cabernet Sauvignon wines covered a wide range of concentrations, with relatively high values in those from cool-climate countries such as Ontario and the Bordeaux region of France, whereas such wines from warmer climates such as California, South America, and Australia tended to have much lower concentrations. Differences between the communes of Bordeaux and Burgundy were noted, with Cotes de Nuits wines having higher concentrations than those of Cotes de Beaune, and in Bordeaux, wines of the Medoc, St. Emilion, and Pomerol had lower concentrations than those found in wines from other communes. Among the other prominent wine-producing regions, wines from Italy, Spain and Portugal tended to have low concentrations in line with their relatively warm and dry climatic conditions, but those of the Rhone Valley where the climate is similar had relatively high trans-resveratrol concentrations. The higher concentrations reported in this study compared with three earlier reports could be due to the quantitative recovery inherent in the solid-phase extraction used in the present assay, and/ or losses occurring during organic phase extraction in the latter.
Also this:
“Resveratrol improves health and survival of mice on a highcalorie diet”By: J. Baur and 26 other authors  (UC Davis)In: Nature. 444:337-342. 2006
Here are the highlights of the original “Resveratrol paper”, the one that shook the wine industry last December and got everyone talking about the health benefits of wine. So, judge for yourself! You can also choose to skip this one, as it deals with health -not winemaking or grapegrowing- even if this type of publicized research does impact consumers’ attitudes towards wine. · How to eat more healthily is a “hot topic” for medical science these days. Researchers have discovered a category of proteins, called sirtuins, that seem to regulate the physiological adaptations of mammals to a low-calorie diet (caloric restriction). When they screened a large amount of compounds in search for molecules able to enhance sirtuin production, they stumbled upon one particular molecule , produced by a variety of plants in response to stress, which was particularly potent: resveratrol. [Editor’s note: In fact, the authors pulled two enhancing molecules out of some 20,000 tested. The fact that, out of such a vast variety of chemical structures, these two molecules happened to be in the same compound category- polyphenolswas what triggered the authors to expand their health research in the direction of phenolic comopunds].· Since experiments with simple organisms ( yeast, fruit flies and fish) showed that resveratrol was effective in extending their lifespan and health, researchers asked whether it could have similar effects in mice. Could resveratrol shift the physiology of mice on a high-calorie diet to that of a standard diet and provide the associated health benefits without the mice having to reduce calorie intake?· To find out, 1 year-old mice were provided a standard diet (SD), or a high-calorie diet of which at least 60% of calories came from fat (HC). To each of the diets, they added resveratrol: standard diet + resveratrol (SDR) and high-calorie diet + resveratrol (HCR). The researchers tested two concentrations of resveratrol, but because the effects were more prominent in the higher dose (22 mg/kg/day), the results presented here refer to this high dose.· 1) Increased survival. At 15 months of age, the survival curves of the HC (high-calorie diet) and HCR (high-calorie diet + resveratrol) groups began to diverge. At 2 years of age, resveratrol had reduced death from the HC diet mice by a statistically significant 30%. In addition to lifespan, researchers wondered whether “quality of life” was maintained as well. In mice, you do that by measuring balance and motor coordination. So they tested the ability of mice to perform on a rotarod (those rods you see hanging from the cage where mice run endlessly without going anywhere). Surprisingly, resveratrol-fed mice improved their motor skills as they aged, to the point of being undistinguishable from the SD group. Researchers made sure this was not just due to the fact that resveratrol-fed mice weighed less, as they found no correlation between rotarod performance and body weight.· 2) Decreased diabetes. In humans, high-calorie diets cause increased glucose and increased insulin, leading to diabetes. The HC mice had increased plasma levels of both glucose and insulin, as well as other markers that predict the onset of diabetes. In contrast, the HCR group had much lower levels, paralleling the SD group. Also, we know that when mice are fed high doses of glucose, blood glucose levels do not Summary 74remain high for more than 60 minutes in young mice, even though a longer persistence is typical in older mice. The persistence of glucose and insulin in blood was significantly decreased in the resveratrol-fed HC mice. The authors go on next about the potential mechanism involved.· 3) Decreased organ pathology. At 18 months of age, the high-calorie diet greatly increased the size and weight of the mice livers, and resveratrol prevented these changes. Histological examination revealed loss of cellular integrity and accumulation of large lipid droplets (“fatty liver”) in the HC but not the HCR groups. Pancreas damage was also elevated in the high calorie group but not the resveratrol-fed group. Other organs studied did not show differences.· 4) Increased mitochondria number. Mitochondria are particles within the cells (organelles) where food molecules are converted into energy; they are the “cellular power plants”. There is evidence that exercise and reduced caloric intake increase hepatic mitochondrial number, so the authors wondered whether resveratrol might produce the same effect. The answer is yes: the livers of resveratrol-fed mice had considerably more mitrochondria than those of HC controls. To their surprise, they also noticed less (not more) mitochondrial genes being activated. So, even though mitochondria l numbers are higher in a  resveratrol-rich diet, their turnover is less.· 5) Me tabolic pathway analysis. Through RNA hybridization experiments, the researchers looked at what genes had the highest levels of expression in the mice liver cells. They found that resveratrol caused a significant alteration of 127 pathways! These included the well-known TCA (tri-carboxylic acid) cycle, glycolysis and sterol biosynthesis pathways. With the help of databases, the authors went on to compare the pathway changes common to a caloric -reduced diet and a resveratrol diet. Could this reveal those pathways common to the enhancement of health and longevity? Based on their results, the authors encourage further studies in this direction. In conclusion, resveratrol was able to shift the physiology of mice consuming excess calories towards that of mice on a standard diet, improving their health, as indicated by longer survival, better motor function, reduced diabetes, decreased organ pathology, and higher mitochondrial number. The 27 authors end their article with the following quote: “Resveratrol - and molecules with similar properties- might be valuable tools in the search for key regulators of energy balance, health and longevity […] This study shows that a small molecule that can be administered orally at doses achievable in humans can safely reduce many of the negative consequences of excess caloric intake, with an overall improvement in health and survival”. As we know, red wine is a source of resveratrol. In the next summary, we will look at levels of resveratrol in wines.Author: Bibiana Guerra, Editor: Kay Bogart. This summary series funded by J. Lohr Vineyards & Wines.
source:  http://wineserver.ucdavis.edu/pdf/attachment/74%20resveratrol%20and%20mice%20.pdf

Also this:
Polyphenols - thought to be good guys     
Polyphenols are anti-oxidants. The category includes tannins and are thus generally higher in red wines than in white. All the reds tested are high in polyphenols, with Rodney Strong, Beringer Founders, and BV Coastal standing out from the rest. All the whites are low in polyphenols, although Lindemans, Kendall Jackson, and Duboeuf have more than the others.
Catechins - thought to be good guys    
Catechins, anti-oxidants that are a sub-class of polyphenols, are also more prevalent in red wines than whites. Blackstone, Yellow Tail, Columbia Crest, and Clos du Bois have the highest levels among the reds. Lindemans and Woodbridge have relatively high levels for white wines.
Resveratrol - clearly a good guy    Resveratrol is another important anti-oxidant. Several studies show that it reduces “bad” cholesterol and increases “good” cholesterol. Resveratrol is generally higher in red wines than in whites. Among the reds, Concha y Toro is by far the highest. Clos du Bois, Rosemount, and Yellow Tail are also high. BV Coastal and Beringer Founders are very low. Among the whites, Bella Sera is surprisingly high, surpassing many of the red wines.

see ranking (Res) below:

 AlcoholAlcoholSugarSulfitesPolyphenolsCatechinsResveratrol
 Actual %Labeled%ppm.mg/grammg/175gmg/liter
RED WINES TESTED       
Yellow Tail Merlot11.113.50.51033.26102.42.00
Rosemount Shiraz10.9140.21043.22  84.72.01
Columbia Crest Merlot/Cab10.8130  993.20  93.60.60
Clos du Bois Merlot10.81301403.24  93.12.28
Blackstone Merlot10.7130.41523.05116.91.11
Beringer Founders Cab10.513.301983.62  83.60.39
BV Coastal Cab10.51301223.40  69.50.43
Rodney Strong Cabernet10.513.801403.76  77.31.19
Concha y Toro Merlot10.3130.42312.77  78.45.95
 
 AlcoholAlcoholSugarSulfitesPolyphenolsCatechinsResveratrol
 Actual %Labeled%ppm.mg/grammg/175gmg/liter
WHITE WINES TESTED       
Woodbridge Chardonnay11.213.502240.4158.30.14
Fetzer Chard11.113.50.41840.3939.80.11
Kendall Jackson VR Chard11.013.50.62010.4826.40.22
Ch. St. Michelle Chard10.8130.12080.4039.50.09
Lindemans Bin 65 Chard10.713.50.32410.5258.90.34
Vendange Chard10.7130.62150.3934.60.29
Corbett Canyon Chard10.7130.61740.3627.90.09
Glen Ellen Chard10.6130.51540.3027.90.09
E & J Gallo Chard10.613.50.71530.2715.40.09
Duboueuf Francais Blanc10.41202870.4728.50.29
Sutter Home Chard10.0130.92050.4236.10.09
Bella Serra Pinot Grigio  9.7120.33080.3413.51.66
Bolla Soave  9.7120.21990.309.80.16
Cavit Pinot Grigio  9.6120.42760.3514.40.09
Almaden Mt. Chablis  9.411.50.82330.337.30.09
Franzia Chablis (5L box)  8.8111.12120.3510.20.09
Livingston Cellars Chablis  8.410.51.12400.3310.70.09
Carlo Rossi Chablis  8.210.51.61720.3215.20.09
source:   http://www.beekmanwine.com/prevtopbh.htm 



and this from Dr. Sahelian's site:

Grape health benefit Information, juice content of resveratrol and nutritional composition by Ray Sahelian, M.D. 

Grapes are one of the most valued conventional fruits, worldwide. The flesh of grapes may be just as heart healthy as the skin. Does this mean that white wine offers as good cardiovascular protection as red wine? Researchers prepared grape skin and grape flesh extracts from four varieties of red grape and tested their cardioprotective effects in rats. They found that the flesh extract was just as protective as the skin extract. The skin of red grapes is a rich source of anthocyanins, potent antioxidants that contribute to the red color of the fruit. Red grapes are usually crushed whole, meaning the anthocyanins are transferred to resulting wine and juice. To make most white wine or white grape juices however the skins are separated from the flesh. That situation led to the conventional belief that red wines and red grape juice are healthier for the heart than white. It's possible that the antioxidant potential of skin and flesh of grapes are comparable with each other despite of the fact that flesh does not possess any anthocyanin activities. While grape skin has anthocyanin concentrations of about 128 milligrams per 100 grams, the flesh contains no such compounds. However, the radical scavenging abilities of both the flesh and skin extracts appear to be the same. The flesh of grapes contain polyphenols, but not of the anthocyanin type. Significant concentrations of caffeic acid, caftaric acid, and coutaric acid have been reported. Such compounds are also present in white grape varieties. Several organic acids and polyphenols possessing potent antioxidant activities present in the flesh of grapes are also found in white wines.
   Grapes have a very important compound called resveratrol which has shown anti-aging benefit in rodent studies.
 
Grape juice benefit for heart
Grape juice seems to have the same protective effect against heart disease as red wine does. Researchers at the Universite Louis Pasteur de Strasbourg examined the effect on the heart of Concord grape juice. Dr. Valerie Schini-Kerth and her team found that polyphenols in Concord grape juice activate endothelial cells to produce nitric oxide, which helps to protect against cardiovascular disease and to maintain healthy blood vessels and blood pressure.
Red wine and certain types of grape juice have high levels of polyphenols, which block the production of a protein linked to cardiovascular disease -- the number one killer in many Western countries. Heart and vascular problems develop when endothelial cells that make up blood vessels do not work properly. Polyphenols work the same way in red wine and in grape juice. The amount of polyphenols in grape juice, as in red wine, depends on the type of grape used and how it is processed. This research was partly funded by Welch Foods Inc., a leading producer of grape juice.
 
April 2009 - E. Mitchell Seymour, at Michigan State University, studied the effect of regular table grapes -- a blend of green, red, and black grapes -- that were mixed into the rat diet in a powdered form, as part of either a high- or low-salt diet. Comparisons were made between rats consuming the grape powder and rats that received a mild dose of the common blood pressure drug hydrazine. After 18 weeks, the rats that received the grape-enriched diet powder had lower blood pressure, better heart function and fewer signs of heart muscle damage than rats that ate the same salty diet but didn't receive grapes. Rats that received the blood pressure medicine, hydrazine, along with a salty diet also had lower blood pressure, but their hearts were not protected from damage as they were in the grape-fed group. The study was presented at the 2009 Experimental Biology convention in New Orleans.
 
Grape Juice Benefit
Concentrated red grape juice exerts antioxidant, hypolipidemic, and antiinflammatory effects in both hemodialysis patients and healthy subjects.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2006. Servicio de Bioquimica-Investigacion, Hospital Ramon y Cajal, Madrid, Spain.
Patients treated with hemodialysis frequently experience cardiovascular complications attributed, among other causes, to dyslipidemia, increased oxidative stress, and inflammation. The aim of the study was to study the effects of dietary supplementation with concentrated red grape juice, a source of polyphenols, on lipoprotein profile, antioxidant capacity, LDL oxidation, and inflammatory biomarkers. Twenty-six patients receiving hemodialysis and 15 healthy subjects were instructed to drink 100 mL concentrated red grape juice /d for 14 d. Blood was drawn at baseline, twice during concentrated red grape juice supplementation, and twice during the 6-mo follow-up period. As a control, 12 other randomly recruited hemodialysis patients not receiving concentrated red grape juice were studied. Lipids, apolipoproteins, oxidized LDL, and antioxidant vitamins were measured in plasma. The bioavailability of concentrated red grape juice polyphenols was assessed in healthy subjects. RESULTS: The maximum plasma concentration of quercetin was achieved 3 h after concentrated red grape juice ingestion, which indicates that supplement-derived polyphenols are rapidly absorbed. In both healthy subjects and hemodialysis patients, concentrated red grape juice consumption increased the antioxidant capacity of plasma without affecting concentrations of uric acid or ascorbic acid; reduced the concentration of oxidized LDL; and increased the concentration of cholesterol-standardized alpha-tocopherol. concentrated red grape juice supplementation also caused a significant decrease in LDL-cholesterol and apolipoprotein B-100 concentrations, while increasing the concentrations of HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-I. In a further study in hemodialysis patients, concentrated red grape juice supplementation for 3 wk significantly reduced plasma monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, an inflammatory biomarker associated with cardiovascular disease risk. Dietary supplementation with concentrated concentrated red grape juice improves the lipoprotein profile, reduces plasma concentrations of inflammatory biomarkers and oxidized LDL, and may favor a reduction in cardiovascular disease risk.
 
Diabetes Type 2 Diabetes and Glycemic Response to Grapes or Grape Products.
J Nutr. 2009. Zunino SJ. USDA, Agricultural Research Service, Western Human Nutrition Research Center, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.

Type 2 diabetes affects approximately 7% of the population in the United States and is characterized by decreased disposal of glucose in peripheral tissues due to insulin resistance and overproduction of glucose by the liver, defects in pancreatic beta-cell function, and decreased beta-cell mass. Obesity, decreased physical exercise, and consumption of foods with a high glycemic index (GI) and load are major predisposing factors in the development of type 2 diabetes. The GI is used to evaluate the rise in blood glucose levels in response to food. The GI provides an indication of the quality of carbohydrate in a food. The glycemic load (GL) is used to provide information about the quantity of carbohydrates in a food and the insulin demand. Individuals with diabetes are advised to maintain a diet of low-GL foods, because low-GL diets improve diabetes symptoms. Grapes have a mean GI and GL in the low range. Little research has been performed with grapes and/or grape products to determine the glycemic response either alone or with a meal. Grapes and other fruits contain numerous polyphenols, including the stilbene resveratrol, the flavanol quercetin, catechins, and anthocyanins that have shown potential for reducing hyperglycemia, improving beta-cell function, and protecting against beta-cell loss. Therefore, with a low mean GI and GL, grapes or grape products may provide health benefits to type 2 diabetics.
 
Grape Research studies
Although most of the parts of the grapevine are useful, primarily, the grape is considered as a source of unique natural products not only for the development of valuable medicines against a number of diseases, but also for manufacturing various industrial products. Over the last few decades, apart from the chemistry of grape compounds, considerable progress has been made towards exploring the biological activities of various grape-derived constituents. Today, it is well established that in addition to serving as food, the grape is a major source of several phytonutrients. The main biologically active and well-characterized constituent from the grape is resveratrol, which is known for various medicinal properties in human diseases.
 
Comparison of Cardioprotective Abilities between the Flesh and Skin of Grapes.
J Agric Food Chem. 2006. Department of Medical Pharmacology, Chemotherapy and Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Milan, Milan, Italy; C.R.A., I.V.T.P.A. (Institute of Technological Development of Agricultural Products), Milan, Italy; C.R.A., I.S.E. (Enology Experimental Institute), Velletri, Italy; C.N.R. (National Council of Research), Institute of Molecular Science and Technology, Milan, Italy; and Cardiovascular Research Center, University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Farmington, Connecticut 06030.

Recent studies have documented that grapes and grape juices are equally cardioprotective as red wine. The existing reports implicate that the skin and seeds of the grapes containing polyphenolic antioxidants are instrumental for the cardioprotective properties of grapes. The present study examines if the flesh of grapes also possesses any cardioprotective abilities. Three groups of randomly selected rats were fed, water only (control), flesh of the grapes (2.5 mg/kg b. wt.) or the skins (2.5 mg/kg b. wt.) for 30 days. The results indicate for the first time that the flesh of grapes are equally cardioprotective as skin, and antioxidant potential of skin and flesh of grapes are comparable with each other despite of the fact that flesh does not possess any anthocyanin activities.
 

Hope this information helps with your research.  If so a kind reference/acknowledgement would be appreciated.


Regards,
 
Yusuf (JP) Saleeby, MD
Wonder Herbs: A guide to three adaptogens (Xlibris, 2006)
(912) 656-2297 (home office)

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-----Original Message-----
From: Maraika Robinson
To: jpsaleeby <jpsaleeby@aol.com>
Sent: Thu, Mar 1, 2012 11:50 pm
Subject: Reference Request

Dear Mr. Saleeby,

I read your article titled The Health Benefits of Wine/ Resveratrol (found here: http://www.wineinyourdiet.com/Wine_heart_health_articles/hbwn.php). I'm researching antioxidants found in red wines and was wondering if you could provide me with the source of your statements about research done at UC Davis and their findings that Cabernet has the most flavanoid activity, followed by Petit Syrah and Pinot Noir, then red Zinfandel and Merlot. 

Thank you for your help.

Maraika Robinson


--
Maraika Robinson
Northwestern University
Weinberg College of Arts and Sciences

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